Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic medical condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.
Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels, and without it, the body cannot properly use the glucose in food as energy. This can lead to high levels of glucose in the blood, which over time can damage organs, nerves, and blood vessels.
Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2 diabetes, accounting for only 5-10% of all cases of diabetes. It usually develops in children and young adults but can occur at any age.
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can develop rapidly and include excessive thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and blurred vision. These symptoms can be severe and can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis if left untreated.
The treatment for type 1 diabetes is focused on maintaining blood sugar levels within a target range to prevent complications. This typically involves taking insulin injections or using an insulin pump to deliver insulin throughout the day.
The amount of insulin needed can vary based on factors such as diet, exercise, and stress. Along with insulin therapy, people with type 1 diabetes must also closely monitor their blood sugar levels and adjust their insulin dosage as needed. This can be done through regular self-testing using a blood glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device.
Managing type 1 diabetes can be challenging, but it is essential for preventing long-term complications. These can include nerve damage, kidney damage, eye damage, cardiovascular disease, and foot damage that can lead to amputation.
Living with type 1 diabetes can be challenging, but it is important to remember that it is a manageable condition. With proper medical care, self-monitoring, and lifestyle changes, people with type 1 diabetes can lead healthy and fulfilling lives. It is also important for individuals with type 1 diabetes to have a support system in place, whether it is through family, friends, or a diabetes support group, to help them cope with the challenges of living with the condition.
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic medical condition that affects the body's ability to produce insulin. It is a serious condition that requires lifelong management to prevent complications. However, with proper medical care, self-monitoring, and lifestyle changes, people with type 1 diabetes can lead healthy and fulfilling lives. It is important for individuals with type 1 diabetes to have a support system in place to help them cope with the challenges of living with the condition.
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to develop into different types of cells in the body. They can be obtained from various sources, including embryos, umbilical cord blood, and adult tissues. Stem cells have the potential to regenerate damaged tissues and organs, making them a promising option for the treatment of various diseases, including type 1 diabetes.
In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Stem cell therapy aims to replace these lost beta cells with new, healthy beta cells that can produce insulin. There are two main approaches to stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes: transplantation of insulin-producing cells and the regeneration of beta cells from endogenous stem cells.
Transplantation of insulin-producing cells involves transplanting beta cells or insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells into the pancreas of a person with type 1 diabetes. This approach has been shown to be effective in animal studies and in a small number of clinical trials. However, there are challenges associated with this approach, including the risk of rejection by the immune system, the need for immunosuppressive drugs, and the limited availability of donor cells.
The regeneration of beta cells from endogenous stem cells involves using drugs or other techniques to stimulate the body’s own stem cells to differentiate into beta cells. This approach has the potential to provide a limitless supply of new beta cells, avoiding the need for transplantation. However, this approach is still in the early stages of research and has not yet been proven effective in clinical trials.
While stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes is still in the early stages of research, there have been promising results in animal studies and early clinical trials.
In a study published in the journal Stem Cells Translational Medicine, researchers transplanted insulin-producing cells derived from human embryonic stem cells into mice with type 1 diabetes. The transplanted cells successfully produced insulin and regulated the mice's blood sugar levels.
In another study published in the journal Nature Communications, researchers used a combination of stem cell therapy and gene editing to treat mice with type 1 diabetes. The researchers used stem cells to generate new beta cells and then used gene editing to modify the cells to make them resistant to attack by the immune system. The transplanted cells successfully produced insulin and regulated the mice's blood sugar levels for up to six months.
While these studies are promising, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes in humans. Clinical trials are ongoing, and researchers are working to overcome the challenges associated with stem cell therapy, including the risk of rejection by the immune system and the need for immunosuppressive drugs.
In conclusion, stem cell therapy has the potential to be a cure for type 1 diabetes by replacing lost beta cells or stimulating the body's own stem cells to regenerate new beta cells. While stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes is still in the early stages of research, there have been promising results in animal studies and early clinical trials. More research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes in humans, but the potential benefits make it an exciting area of research.
Stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes in our centre: For children below 10 years, we prefer to put patients own stem cells in the Omental pouch. Please read our following publication for details.
For children above 10 years of age and adults, we prefer to put stem cells directly into the pancreas through femoral artery in a catheterisation laboratory. This therapy is called intrapancreatic stem cell therapy which was done by us for the first time in the world. Currently, our centre is the only centre which offers both above therapies.